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TechnologyWORDS : Monitor

Liquid Crystal This is a substance where the state can be changed to either a solid and a liquid depending on the applied voltage. Electricity is used to control the transmission of light.
Liquid Crystal Display This is a display device using the liquid crystal. A special liquid is injected into the gap between two glass sheets. When voltage is applied to the liquid, the direction of the liquid crystal molecules changes. The structure of this device displays images by increasing or decreasing the transmission factor of light.
Luminance This is the brightness per unit area of the light radiated in a fixed direction from the flat light source. The unit is candela per square meter (cm/m²)
Dot This is the minimum unit composing an image. The screen is composed of an aggregate of many dots with different degrees of brightness. An image can be recognized when these dots come together. For digital media, a pixel is specified in the standards, and the resolution will be decided accordingly.
Resolution This is a numerical value indicating the performance of a monitor. The fineness and smoothness of the image quality are indicated in the number of dots displayed on the screen.  
VGA =Video Graphics Array 640×480  
SVGA =Super Video Graphics Array 800×600  
XGA =Extended Graphics Array 1,024×768  
WXGA =Wide Extended Graphics Array 1,280×768  
SXGA =Super Extended Graphics Array 1,280×1,024  
UXGA =Ultra Extended Graphics Array 1,600×1,200  
WQXGA =Wide Quad Extended Graphics Array 2,560×1,600
Horizontal Frequency The number of horizontal lines that are drawn by a monitor every second. This is a frequency required for drawing images on a monitor. It is expressed in units of kilohertz (kHz) indicating the speed that lines are scanned in the horizontal direction. If the vertical frequency is fixed, a higher value for the horizontal frequency means the capability to express images in a higher resolution.
Vertical Frequency This is the vertical frequency of the scanning signal for displaying images on a monitor. This shows the number of times the display can be drawn by the monitor within a second. The unit is expressed in hertz (Hz). It is also referred to as the refresh rate.
Dot Clock/Dot Frequency This means the frequency of the displayed pixels. This numerical value indicates how quick a single dot on a screen can be flashed.
Aspect Ratio This is the ratio of the length and breadth of a monitor screen or an image displayed on a monitor. The ratio for current terrestrial TV broadcasting is 4:3, while the same for hi-vision is 16:9.
Contrast Ratio This is a difference between brightness and darkness when projecting black and white on a screen.
Sharpness This is the resolution perceived by eyes. It emphasizes outlines and adjusts detailed reproducibility by controlling the frequency property of images. If the sharpness is increased, the medium and high frequency ranges are emphasized and details are reproduced clearly, while noise tends to be obvious.
Impure Black This is a state where a portion of black on an image is not expressed as proper "black" but appears brighter or something like that is covered with a certain film. The impure black produces significant influences on the contrast, gradation, and color reproducibility and may cause difficulty in reproducing the image properly.
Brightness This is the balance between the bright gradation and the dark gradation on an image. The brightness determines the brightness of the respective gradations.
Tone This is an element expressing differences in colors (red, green, blue etc.). The tone is different from the chroma. The chroma expresses the strength of the tone (amount of red, green, and blue).
Chrome This is an attribute expressing the vividness of colors. If this value is higher, images are more vivid. If it is low, the colors of images are dull. The brightness and the tone as well as the chroma are the three major attributes of colors.
Color Temperature This is a numerical value indicating the relative strength of violet light and red light in a light source emitting a certain color. It is defined as the temperature of a black body when a perfect black body radiates light of the same color as one emitted from the light source. The unit of this value is Kelvin (K). If this value is higher, blue in the color becomes stronger. If it is lower, red in the color becomes stronger.
Gamma Correction This is a correction to vary the brightness from 0% of black to 100% of white linearly according to the input level of video signals. In the cathode-ray tube or the LCD monitor, the optimum gamma correction for the respective devices must be executed to reproduce the natural contrast of images.
Standard RGB This is an abbreviation for "standard RGB." This is the global standard for color reproducibility defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
AdobeRRGB This is a standard covering the viewing environment for color monitors and prints and physical properties, such as color reproducibility and the brightness range, for the color monitor.
RGB Signal This is a signal separating the three basic signals of video signals, namely R (red), G (green), and B (blue). The G signal is more important among them in particular, since it determines the resolution.
Composite Plug This is a plug called the pin plug. This is the most popular plug in the current audio-visual industry.
BNC Plug This is a plug that is often used in broadcasting equipment. It has higher reliability than others. This plug has a structure where it is inserted into the port and is then turned along a groove to secure it.
Component Signal Output This means the input/output of RGB signals or video signals with color differences. Video signals are divided into three basic signals and then transmitted. Since interference among these three basic signals can be suppressed, high quality signals can be transmitted
Composit Terminal Video signals can roughly be divided into Y (brightness signals) and C (color signals). The composite video signal is a signal mixing these two signals. This is a terminal for transmitting this composite video signal.
D-Terminal These are the standards for cables that transmit video signals one plug a code, which were defined in 1999. Four types from D1 to D4 terminal are available. The transmission formation is transmitted with the color difference signals while the automatic aspect conversion signals can also be transmitted. They are limited standards applicable only within Japan.
D-sub15pin This is a terminal for connecting a PC main unit and a monitor. RGB signals are transmitted to a monitor through this terminal.
Multi-Scanning Display This is a monitor supporting video signals for various kinds of horizontal scanning frequencies and vertical scanning frequencies.
Plasma Monitor This is an image display equipment having a mechanical theory to emit light of fluorescent substance of the respective dots on the vacuum glass plate.
High Definition television This is a hypocoristic name of the high definition television (HDTV) in Japan, of which the trademark rights are held by NHK. The aspect ratio is 16:9 and the number of the effective scanning lines is 1080.
Viewing Angle This means the range where the LCD device has a certain visible contrast ratio. It is expressed in the unit of angle.
Dot Pitch This is the distance between the neighboring dots. It is said generally that the sharpness of the screen depends on this distance.
BEZEL This is a plastic or metal frame covering the LCD glass. This protects the corners of the glass, prevents static electricity, and enhances the housing.
Backlight The liquid crystal itself does not emit light. Images are displayed by using the reflected light in a bright place, while using the light of the fluorescent lamp installed on the backside of the liquid crystal in a dark place. This fluorescent lamp is referred to as the backlight.
Module This is a generic name of an assembly combining the LCD and the PCB, the driver for driving, the bezel, and the backlight.
Response Time This is the measured value of the time for displaying White >> Black >> White (or Black >> White >> Black) consecutively. A value in the case of the longest transportation time for the liquid crystal is measured. However, the response time for a neutral color becomes slower than the specification value, since the applied voltage is low.
Video Electronics Standards Association This is the organization for setting the standards for graphics related products for PCs. Standards established in VESA are referred as the VESA standards.
Digital Visual Interface This is one of the interface standards for connecting a computer and a monitor. It is possible to transmit digital signals directly from a computer to a monitor.
Display Data Channel/Command Interface This is the international standard for exchanging setting information between a monitor and a PC bilaterally.
In-Plane Switching This uses liquid crystal molecules laid flat and rotated in transverse direction to control the intensity of the backlight. Since the liquid crystal molecules are not inclined in the vertical direction, it has less fluctuation in brightness and color from the view angle.
Vertical Alignment When the voltage is turned off, the liquid crystal molecules are set vertically and the screen becomes black. In the case of the maximum voltage, the molecules array horizontally, and the screen becomes white. This has a feature that it can easily express pure black and set a higher contrast ratio, since light from the backlight may not be influenced by the liquid crystal molecules and is shut out completely with the polarizing plate, when the voltage is turned off.
Twisted Nematic When the voltage is turned off, the liquid crystal molecules are set horizontally and light from the backlight is transmitted through it so that the screen becomes white. If voltage is applied gradually while maintaining this state, the liquid crystal molecules stand up gradually. When the voltage reaches maximum, light from the backlight is shut out and then the screen becomes black. The production technology for the method where the liquid crystal molecules are twisted at 90 degrees against the glass surface has already been established. With this method, the response time is relatively faster, and it is easy to obtain bright expressions. Furthermore, the power consumption of the backlight can be saved if the display brightness is the same. On the other hand, this has other characteristics where its view angle is narrower and the displacement of color is greater than other methods.
Thin-Film Transistor This is a typical LCD applying the active matrix method. On/Off of the respective dots are controlled independently. This has features where the respective dots can be turned on, the screen expression is clear, and the response time is high.
Tilt Angle/Swivel Angle This is a range that the monitor screen can be moved vertically and horizontally.
Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine This is the standard defining formats of medical-use images taken with CT, MRI, and CR, and communication protocols between medical-use imaging devices handling these images. This is developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).
Dual Link This is one of the transmission methods with the DVI interface connecting computers and monitors. Two links of the TMDS signal transmission link are provided to transmit image data at 330 mega dots per second at maximum. Connectors for 24-pin DVI-D dual link or 29-pin DVI-I dual link are applied. A single link of the TMDS signal transmission link can support a resolution up to UXGA (1600 x 1200). If any resolution higher than UXGA is required, dual links must be used.
Transition Minimized Differential Signaling This is one of the digital transmission methods to be used between a monitor and a PC. This has been developed by Silicon Imaging, Inc. of the U.S.A. This is applied to the digital signaling parts of DVI and HDMI.
Gray Scale This is a method expressing graphic data without color data, such as monochrome photographs on a computer.
Touch Panel This is one of the interfaces for operating computers. By touching the GUI (graphical user interface) displayed on a monitor, you can operate a computer interactively.
Universal Serial Bus This is a connection standard for computers. Many kinds of peripheral devices can be connected to computers with this standard.
International Color Consortium Profile This is a file describing how to reproduce colors with a specific device and color ranges of devices. This has been defined by the ICC (International Color Consortium). This is provided mainly for three types of devices, namely monitors, input devices (digital camera or scanners), and output devices (printers).
High-Definition Multimedia Interface This is a standard for displaying digital images directly on a monitor. The user can enjoy high quality images and digital audio through this interface. This is capable of transmitting/receiving images, audio, and control signals on a single cable.
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection system This is a copyright protection technology that codes the routes transmitting/receiving digital signals from image playing devices, such as a PC, to a display device, such as a monitor, to prevent the contents from illegal reproduction.
Sync On Green This is one of the synchronous signaling methods. This is a method that synthesizes horizontal synchronous signals and vertical synchronous signals and then transmits the compound signals on image signals of green. This is used for applying the 3-BNC connection.
Multi-Screen This is a function for expanding the display area by connecting two or more monitors to a single PC. Since multiple windows can be used by setting them side-by-side, the operation efficiency can be improved.